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 CULTURE

Introduce Chengde
Brief Introduction of the Mountain Resort
Heritage Assessment
Brief Introduction of the Outlying Temples
Customs and Cultures

the Largest Existing Royal Monastery Complex in China
the Outlying Temples

In the early years of Qing Dynasty, Tibetan Buddhism in Mongolia, Tibet was powerful and people there were very religious, so Buddhist sutra teachings is the spiritual pillar of Mongolians and Tibetans. Lamaism elites were in the effective control of the local political regime, together with a large number of economic wealth and all the temples. In order to strengthen its control of the northern land and consolidate national unity, Qing Dynasty carried out Huai Rou Policy to the minority of our country--- to respect their beliefs and customs while ruling them.

Since the Mountain Resort was completed in 1708, the emperors would come and stay here long to escape the summer heat and handle government affairs. Therefore a great number of Minority chiefs of Mongolian and Tibetan as well as foreign embassies came to Chengde annually to have an audience with the emperor and attend the celebrations. Temples were built where the political and religious figures could pay homage to Buddha. From 1711 to 1828, Qing government built 43 temples in the center of today’s Chengde city and around Luanhe Town, among which, 36 temples were directly managed by royal government. Inside the Mountain Resort were 16 temples, such as Zhuyuan Temple and Yongyou Temple. To the north of it were 2 temples ( now in Luanhe Town), and to the north-east of it were 12 temples such as Puning Temple and Pule Temple. There had never been Lama appointed by the royal government in the 3 temples of Luohan Tang, Guangan Temple and Pule Temple, which were managed by internal affairs government office. While another 9 temples of Puren, Pushan, Anyuan, Guangyuan, Puyou, Puning, Xumifushou, Putuozongcheng and Shuxiang were managed by 8 administrative organs directed by Lifan Yuan. Lamas were posted here and were issued salary every month. The 9 temples were called “the Outlying Temples” by the official history record of Qing Dynasty, and later commonly known as “the Outlying 8 Temples or Rehe Lama Temples”.

 

 
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